I'll talk about the judge for a while. First of all, the half-naked part. What exactly does "half-naked" mean. Shirtless? Pantless? Naked except for a leaf? Whatever it is, judge is really into it now, even more so than regular nudity. The guys call him crazy in this chapter, twice. Both times are after one of his long rants. What the judge is saying is too smart for the rest of the men, so they think he's crazy. Anything they don't know is "crazy." But maybe they're right, maybe he is crazy.
Simile I didn't quite get. It's describing Glanton's doggy. "Out of some custodial instinct such as children will evoke in animals." The dog is following the idiot, so I guess he's trying to say the idiot is like a child, but I didn't know children evoked custodial instincts in animals. Maybe a really smart animal, like a dolphin or dragon, but the average dog isn't going to protect a baby, a fallacy which movies and tv shows like to exploit. Old yeller. any other movie named after a dog.
The big war discussion kind of reminded me of "the book" in 1984. War is God. War has to be going on. It's not the same perspective; judge just likes war, he doesn't care about the economy. It's a really wordy two paragraphs, that really don't make much sense to me. And same with the earlier one about life elsewhere in the universe; it made no sense to me. Those are just words, man.
244, a brief change in verb tense.
tandem suns, 247. I guess this just means the sun never stops shining. Once it sets, it rises without hesitation. The sun is hot.